This analysis explores whether Nigeria is, in the true meaning of the phrase, a “representative and accountable democracy”. The discussion is divided into four parts. The first sets out the context: when is a democracy truly representative and accountable? The next section addresses the question of whether Nigeria meets the standards of a genuinely representative and accountable democracy. The final part develops a theoretical framework for understanding why a democracy may or may not be truly representative and accountable, and applies the framework to explain the nature of Nigeria’s democracy. The analysis concludes with recommendations.